The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. "
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a "normal" year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes Inconel718 powder.
The effects of boron and silicon elements: significantly reduce the melting point of the alloy, expand the temperature range of the solid-liquid line, and form a low-melting eutectic; deoxidation and reduction and slag-making functions; hardening and strengthening of the coating; improving the performance of the operation process.
The role of copper: improve the corrosion resistance to non-oxidizing acids.
The role of chromium: solid solution strengthening, passivation; improve corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance; excess chromium easily forms chromium carbide and chromium boride hard phases with carbon and boron to improve alloy hardness and wear resistance .
The role of molybdenum element: large atomic radius, large distortion of the crystal lattice after solid solution, significantly strengthening the alloy matrix, improving the high temperature strength and red hardness of the matrix; it can cut off and reduce the network structure in the coating; improve the resistance to cavitation , Erosion ability nickel-based precision alloy.
Including nickel-based soft magnetic alloys, nickel-based precision resistance alloys, and nickel-based electric heating alloys. The most commonly used soft magnetic alloy is Permalloy with about 80% nickel. Its maximum permeability and initial permeability are high, and its coercivity is low. It is an important core material in the electronics industry. The main alloying elements of nickel-based precision resistance alloys are chromium, aluminum, and copper. This alloy has high resistivity, low temperature coefficient of resistivity and good corrosion resistance, and is used to make resistors. Nickel-based electric heating alloy is a nickel alloy containing 20% chromium. It has good oxidation and corrosion resistance and can be used for a long time at a temperature of 1000 to 1100 ℃.
Nickel-based shape memory alloy
A nickel alloy containing 50(at)% titanium. The recovery temperature is 70°C, and the shape memory effect is good. A small change in the ratio of nickel-titanium components can change the recovery temperature within the range of 30 to 100°C. It is mostly used in the manufacture of automatic opening structural parts used in spacecraft, self-exciting fasteners used in the aerospace industry, artificial heart motors used in biomedicine, etc.
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic not only had a significant impact on public health, it also severely affected one of the linchpins of the global economy – the tourism industry. As many countries introduced curfews and travel restrictions to contain the spread of the virus, travel across the world significantly declined from early 2020 onwards. The financial repercussions of the coronavirus have already begun to manifest themselves within the tourism industry. In 2020, global revenue from the travel and tourism industry was estimated to drop from a forecasted 711.94 billion U.S. dollars to 568.6 billion U.S. dollars, representing a decrease of over 20 percent. The region predicted to see the highest decline in revenue was Europe, decreasing from 211.97 billion U.S. dollars in 2019 to roughly 124 billion U.S. dollars in 2020.
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